Home

energytoday.it.ggenergytoday.it.gg


 

See my works


About Nano Fusion                                     About the Light

and Dynamic Fusion                                      Dimensions

http://thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2016.261.266                                                  http://thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajassp.2016.321.325





See 


 


Today we know that not only the first isotope of hydrogen (deuterium) produces fusion energy, but also the second (heavy) isotope of hydrogen (tritium) can produce energy by nuclear fusion.


New In Cold Nuclear Fusion


In nuclear fusion process two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus. During this process, matter is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to energy which is released. The binding energy of the resulting nucleus is greater than the binding energy of each of the nuclei that fused to produce it. This produces an enormous amount of energy.

Creating the required conditions for fusion on Earth is very difficult, to the point that it has not been accomplished at any scale for protium, the common light isotope of hydrogen that undergoes natural fusion in stars. In nuclear weapons, some of the energy released by an atomic bomb (fission bomb) is used for compressing and heating a fusion fuel containing heavier isotopes of hydrogen, and also sometimes lithium, to the point of "ignition". At this point, the energy released in the fusion reactions is enough to briefly maintain the reaction. Fusion-based nuclear power experiments attempt to create similar conditions using far lesser means, although to date these experiments have failed to maintain conditions needed for ignition long enough for fusion to be a viable commercial power source.

Research into developing controlled thermonuclear fusion for civil purposes also began in earnest in the 1950s, and it continues to this day. Two projects, the National Ignition Facility and ITER are in the process of reaching breakeven after 60 years of design improvements developed from previous experiments.

The best results were obtained with the Tokamak-type installations (see the Figures below).

ITER: the world's largest Tokamak

ITER is based on the 'tokamak' concept of magnetic confinement, in which the plasma is contained in a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel. The fuel—a mixture of deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen—is heated to temperatures in excess of 150 million°C, forming a hot plasma. Strong magnetic fields are used to keep the plasma away from the walls; these are produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel, and by an electrical current driven through the plasma.

The origin of the energy released in fusion of light elements is due to an interplay of two opposing forces, the nuclear force which draws together protons and neutrons, and the Coulomb force which causes protons to repel each other. The protons are positively charged and repel each other but they nonetheless stick together, portraying the existence of another force referred to as a nuclear attraction. Research into controlled fusion, with the aim of producing fusion power for the production of electricity, has been conducted for over 60 years. It has been accompanied by extreme scientific and technological difficulties, but has resulted in progress. At present, controlled fusion reactions have been unable to produce break-even (self-sustaining) controlled fusion reactions. Workable designs for a reactor that theoretically will deliver ten times more fusion energy than the amount needed to heat up plasma to required temperatures (see ITER) were originally scheduled to be operational in 2018, however this has been delayed and a new date has not been stated [2-7].

 

H-hour

In an anterior work [1] we spoke about the nuclear reactions.

The current nuclear power is considered a transition way, to the energy thermonuclear, based on fusion of light nuclei.

The main particularity of synthesis reaction (fusion) is the high prevalence of the used fuel (primary), deuterium. It can be obtained relatively simply from ordinary water.

Deuterium was extracted from water for the first time by Harold Urey in 1931. Even at that time, small linear electrostatic accelerators, have indicated that D-D reaction (fusion of two deuterium nuclei) is exothermic.

Today we know that not only the first isotope of hydrogen (deuterium) produces fusion energy, but also the second (heavy) isotope of hydrogen (tritium) can produce energy by nuclear fusion.

The first reaction is possible between two nuclei of deuterium, from which can be obtained, either a tritium nucleus plus a proton and energy, or an isotope of helium with a neutron and energy.

http://www.altenergymag.com/images/upload/images/fusion_formula01.jpg

Observations: a deuterium nucleus has a proton and a neutron; a tritium nucleus has a proton and two neutrons.

Fusion can occur between a nucleus of deuterium and one of tritium.

http://www.altenergymag.com/images/upload/images/fusion_formula02.jpg

Another fusion reaction can be produced between a nucleus of deuterium and an isotope of helium.

http://www.altenergymag.com/images/upload/images/fusion_formula03.jpg

For these reactions to occur, should that the deuterium nuclei have enough kinetic energy to overcome the electrostatic forces of rejection due to the positive tasks of protons in the nuclei.

For deuterium for average kinetic energy required tens of keV.

For 1 keV are needed about 10 million degrees temperature.

The huge temperature is done with high power lasers acting hot plasma.

Electromagnetic fields are arranged so that it can maintain hot plasma.

The best results were obtained with the Tokamak-type installations.

ITER: the world's largest Tokamak

Deuterium fuel is delivered in heavy water, D2O.

Tritium is obtained in the laboratory by the following reaction.

http://www.altenergymag.com/images/upload/images/fusion_formula04.jpg

Lithium, the third element in Mendeleev's table, is found in nature in sufficient quantities.

The accelerated neutrons which produce the last presented reaction with lithium, appear from the second and the third presented reaction.

Raw materials for fusion are deuterium and lithium.

All fusion reactions shown produce finally energy and He. He is an inert (gas) element. Because of this, fusion reaction is clean, and far superior to nuclear fission.

Hot fusion works with very high temperatures.

In cold fusion, it must accelerate the deuterium nucleus, in linear or circular accelerators. Final energy of accelerated deuterium nuclei should be well calibrated for a positive final yield of fusion reactions (more mergers, than fission).

Electromagnetic fields which maintain the plasma (cold and especially the warm), should be and constrictors (especially at cold fusion), for to press, and more close together the nuclei.

The potential energy with that two protons reject each other, be calculated with the following relationship.

http://www.altenergymag.com/images/upload/images/fusion_formula05.jpg

At a keV is necessary a temperature of 10 million 0C.

At 360 keV is necessary a temperature of 3600 million 0C.

In hot fusion one needs a minimum temperature of 3600 million degrees, for a distance between the two particles of 4x10^(-15).

Without a minimum of 4000 million degrees we can't make the hot fusion reaction, to obtain the nuclear power.

Today we have just 150 million degrees made.

To replace the lack of necessary temperature, it uses various tricks.

In cold fusion one must accelerate the deuterium nuclei at an energy of 360 [keV], and then collide them with the cold fusion fuel (heavy water and lithium), and collide them each other.

 

New Cold Nuclear Fusion

Because obtaining the necessary huge temperature for hot fusion is still difficult, it is time to focus us on cold nuclear fusion.

We need to bomb the fuel with accelerated deuterium nuclei.

The fuel will be made ​​from heavy water and lithium.

The optimal proportion of lithium will be tested.

It would be preferable to keep fuel in the plasma state.

Between deuterium and tritium the smallest radius is the radius of deuterium nucleus.

Where r0=(1,2…1,5).10^-15 the average radius of a nucleon; usual r0=1,45.10^-15

R=r0.(A)^1/3 the average radius of a static nucleus

All these static calculations still refer to a moving particle dynamic. So something is wrong.

For a more precise calculation it is necessary to determine the precise radius of elementary particles in motion.

Based on dynamic hypotheses, solving some difficult and original moving systems of equations, were obtained these three relationships.

First determines particle velocity needed for energy fusion.

Second one calculates the radius of particle on movement.

Third it determines the particle energy to get the cold fusion.

With m0  deuteron=3.34524E-27[kg]

v=1383320.056[m/s]

 
 

RD=3.83566E-19 [m] (dynamic at v=0.004614143c)

U=Ep=3.00674E-10[J]= 1876809963[eV]= 1876809.963[KeV]= 1876.809963[MeV]=1.88[GeV]

 

Conclusions

Based on dynamic hypotheses, solving some difficult and original moving systems of equations, was obtained a potential energy of 1.88 [GeV] which that the deuteron must to be accelerated and then collided to get the cold nuclear fusion.

Dynamic at high velocity and when the particle mass increase, the particle radius decreases (focuses matter).

 

 

Bibliography

  • Petrescu F.I., Nuclear Fusion, Alternative Energy Magazine, (2012), available at: http://www.altenergymag.com/content.php?post_type=1931
  • "First successful integrated experiment at National Ignition Facility announced". General Physics. PhysOrg.com. October 8, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  • "Beyond ITER". The ITER Project. Information Services, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 5 February 2011. - Projected fusion power timeline
  • Atzeni, Stefano (2009). The Physics of Inertial Fusion. USA: Oxford Science Publications. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-19-956801-7.
  • Iiyoshi, A; H. Momota, O Motojima, et al. (October 1993). "Innovative Energy Production in Fusion Reactors". National Institute for Fusion Science NIFS: 2–3. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  • Rolfe, A. C. (1999). "Remote Handling JET Experience". Nuclear Energy 38 (5): 6. ISSN 0140-4067. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  • Heindler and Kernbichler, Proc. 5th Intl. Conf. on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, 1989, pp. 177-82. See also Residual radiation from a p–11B reactor


This paper proposes possible new energy sources. One of these sources can be the “energy from stars”.

Energy From Stars

Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu & Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu

 

Energy development is the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms for supply, cost, impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable energy. Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services. All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar source or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively. After 1950, began to appear nuclear fission plants. The fission energy was a necessary evil. In this mode it stretched the oil life, avoiding an energy crisis. Even so, the energy obtained from oil represents about 66% of all energy used. At this rate of use of oil, it will be consumed in about 40 years. Today, the production of energy obtained by nuclear fusion is not yet perfect prepared. But time passes quickly. We must rush to implement of the additional sources of energy already known, but and find new energy sources. In these circumstances this paper comes to proposing possible new energy sources. One of these sources may be "the energy from stars”.

 

INTRODUCTION

Energy development is the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms for supply, cost, impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable energy.

Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services.

This energy allows people who can afford the cost to live under otherwise unfavorable climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, as do the climate, convenience, levels of traffic congestion, pollution and availability of domestic energy sources.

All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar insolation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively.

Ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion.

Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the Earth's core is the result of the decay of radioactive materials present beneath the Earth's crust, and nuclear fission relies on man-made fission of heavy radioactive elements in the Earth's crust; in both cases these elements were produced in supernova explosions before the formation of the solar system.

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished).

In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity.

New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuel) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly.

The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States.

At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel.

Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA, the world's largest producer in absolute terms, although not as a percentage of its total motor fuel use.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas.

More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cook stoves are used by 160 million households.

Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization.

New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors.

 

FIRST ENERGY SOURCE

Life’s First Energy Source

An obscure compound known as pyrophosphite could have been a source of energy that allowed the first life on Earth to form (Fig. 1) (New Theory for Life’s First Energy Source, Corey Zah).

Fig. 1 Ball and stick model of the HPO32− ion in Bis(melaminium) hydrogen phosphite tetrahydrate

Source: Phosphite, New Theory for Life’s First Energy Source, posted by Corey Zah

 

Researchers at the University of Leeds have uncovered new clues to the origins of life on Earth.

The team found that a compound known as pyrophosphite may have been an important energy source for primitive life forms.

There are several conflicting theories of how life on Earth emerged from inanimate matter billions of years ago – a process known as abiogenesis.

"It's a chicken and egg question," said Dr Terry Kee of the University of Leeds, who led the research. "Scientists are in disagreement over what came first – replication, or metabolism. But there is a third part to the equation – and that is energy."

All living things require a continual supply of energy in order to function. This energy is carried around our bodies within certain molecules, one of the best known being ATP*, which converts heat from the sun into a useable form for animals and plants.

At any one time, the human body contains just 250g of ATP – this provides roughly the same amount of energy as a single AA battery. This ATP store is being constantly used and regenerated in cells via a process known as respiration, which is driven by natural catalysts called enzymes.

"You need enzymes to make ATP and you need ATP to make enzymes," explained Dr Kee. "The question is: where did energy come from before either of these two things existed? We think that the answer may lie in simple molecules such as pyrophosphite which is chemically very similar to ATP, but has the potential to transfer energy without enzymes."

The key to the battery-like properties of both ATP and pyrophosphite is an element called phosphorus, which is essential for all living things. Not only is phosphorus the active component of ATP, it also forms the backbone of DNA and is important in the structure of cell walls.

But despite its importance to life, it is not fully understood how phosphorus first appeared in our atmosphere. One theory is that it was contained within the many meteorites that collided with the Earth billions of years ago.

"Phosphorus is present within several meteoritic minerals and it is possible that this reacted to form pyrophosphite under the acidic, volcanic conditions of early Earth," added Dr Kee.

The findings, published in the journal Chemical Communications, are the first to suggest that pyrophosphite may have been relevant in the shift from basic chemistry to complex biology when life on earth began. Since completing this research, Dr Kee and his team have found even further evidence for the importance of this molecule and now hope to team up with collaborators from NASA to investigate its role in abiogenesis.

Animal and human cell contain and this small structure named mitochondria. In Fig. 2 one can see an animal cell who contains and mitochondrias (elements 9). ("Animal Cell" by Kelvinsong - Own work. Licensed under CC0 via Wikimedia Commons).

Fig. 2 An animal cell

Source: Animal Cell" by Kelvinsong - Own work. Licensed under CC0 via Wikimedia Commons

 

Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of the DNA contained in human mitochondria. Mitochondria are small structures in cells that generate energy for the cell to use, and are hence referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell (Fig. 3) (Mitochondrion mini.svg, By Kelvinsong - Own work [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons).

Fig. 3 Mitochondria are small structures in cells that generate energy for the cell to use

Source: Mitochondria By Kelvinsong (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

 

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is not transmitted through nuclear DNA (nDNA). In humans, as in most multi cellular organisms, mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother's ovum.

Mitochondrial inheritance is therefore non-Mendelian, as Mendelian inheritance presumes that half the genetic material of a fertilized egg (zygote) derives from each parent.

Eighty percent of mitochondrial DNA codes for functional mitochondrial proteins, and therefore most mitochondrial DNA mutations lead to functional problems, which may be manifested as muscle disorders (myopathies).

Understanding the genetic mutations that affect mitochondria can help us to understand the inner workings of cells and organisms, as well as helping to suggest methods for successful therapeutic tissue and organ cloning, and to treatments or possibly cures for many devastating muscular disorders.

Because they provide 36 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule in contrast to the 2 ATP molecules produced by glycolysis, mitochondria are essential to all higher organisms for sustaining life. The mitochondrial diseases are genetic disorders carried specifically in mitochondrial DNA; slight problems with any one of the numerous enzymes used by the mitochondria can be devastating to the cell, and in turn, to the organism.

The pyrophosphite and human mitochondria are the principal motors of the human energetic processes.

We should better understand these processes, to can prolong our life.

 

NEW AND OLDEST ENERGY SOURCES

Man started to use biomass for energy on the day that our ancestors discovered fire, and used it for cooking. Biomass is actually just another word for biological-mass. Biomass is anything that has been grown or has lived, except for fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas etc). Fossil fuels were of course created by the decay of living organisms many millennia ago in pre-history and are biomass in that sense, but these are not included within the term 'biomass' as used by renewable energy experts (Petrescu 2010, 2011a, 2011b, 2012).

Biomass takes many forms; some of the most well known are: wood, straw, bio waste, wood chip, waste paper, organic slurries from the processing of foodstuffs, livestock farming, sewage treatment, etc.

So biomass can also be grown as a crop for use as fuel. If the biomass is to be grown it will need to be selected to be of high calorific value (give of lots of heat when burnt), grow fast, need little fertilizing or watering, require low power requirements during growing and be cheaply harvested. However, the growing of biomass to use as biofuel on a large scale would have the effect of reducing available land for food crops.

Energy development is the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms for supply, cost, impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable energy.

Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services. This energy allows people who can afford the cost to live under otherwise unfavorable climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning.

All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar insolation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively. Ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion. Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the Earth's core is the result of the decay of radioactive materials present beneath the Earth's crust, and nuclear fission relies on man-made fission of heavy radioactive elements in the Earth's crust; in both cases these elements were produced in supernova explosions before the formation of the solar system.

Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States.

At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert.

The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW.

Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel.

Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA, the world's largest producer in absolute terms, although not as a percentage of its total motor fuel use.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas.

More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cook stoves are used by 160 million households.

 

MAINSTREAM FORMS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

  1. Wind power
  2. Hydropower
  3. Solar energy
  4. Biomass
  5. Biofuel
  6. Geothermal energy
  7. Tidal
  8. Hydrogen obtained by artificial photosynthesis
  9. Waves Power

 

Wind power

Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically (Fig. 4). Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favorable sites (European Wind Energy Association). Wind energy is the cleanest and sufficient, the safest, cheapest and most sustainable. Where land space is not enough, wind farms can be built and in the water. We must put the wind to work.

Fig. 4 Modern wind turbines

Source: EWEA

 

Hydropower

Among sources of renewable energy, hydroelectric plants have the advantages of being long-lived (many existing plants have operated for more than 100 years). Also, hydroelectric plants are clean and have few emissions (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5 Hydroelectric plants

Source: Grand Coulee Dam.jpg


Solar energy

Solar panels generate electricity by converting photons (packets of light energy) into an electric current. Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photo voltaic and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6 Solar energy; a solar cell, solar panels, a solar plant


Biomass

Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture the sun's energy. When the plants are burned, they release the sun's energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy.

As long as biomass is produced sustainably, with only as much used as is grown, the battery will last indefinitely.

In general there are two main approaches to using plants for energy production: growing plants specifically for energy use, and using the residues from plants that are used for other things. The best approaches vary from region to region according to climate, soils and geography

 

Biofuel

Liquid biofuel is usually either bio alcohol such as bioethanol or oil such as biodiesel.

Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant material and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feed stocks for ethanol production.

Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil (United Nations Environment Program. 2009).

 

Geothermal energy

The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may be used to generate electricity.

Such geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically unstable parts of the world such as Chile, Iceland, New Zealand, United States, the Philippines and Italy.

The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone basin and in northern California (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7 Geothermal energy

 

Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in some places of the globe or from some meters in geothermal heat pump in all the places of the planet. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.

Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator.

Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over 200 °C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine.

In binary plants, the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat.

Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal power and heated 86% of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8000 MW of capacity is operational in total. There is also the potential to generate geothermal energy from hot dry rocks. Holes at least 3 km deep are drilled into the earth. Some of these holes pump water into the earth, while other holes pump hot water out.  The heat resource consists of hot underground radiogenic granite rocks, which heat up when there is enough sediment between the rock and the Earth’s surface. Several companies in Australia are exploring this technology.

 

Tidal energy

Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water turbine in a tidal current, or by building impoundment pond dams that admit-or-release water through a turbine (Fig. .

Fig. 8 Tidal energy

 

The turbine can turn an electrical generator, or a gas compressor, that can then store energy until needed. Coastal tides are a source of clean, free, renewable, and sustainable energy.

 

Hydrogen obtained by artificial photosynthesis

Artificial photosynthesis is a research field that attempts to replicate the natural process of photosynthesis, converting sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen.

Sometimes, splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen by using sunlight energy is also referred to as artificial photosynthesis. The actual process that allows half of the overall photosynthetic reaction to take place is photo-oxidation. This half-reaction is essential in separating water molecules because it releases hydrogen and oxygen ions. These ions are needed to reduce carbon dioxide into a fuel. However, the only known way this is possible is through an external catalyst, one that can react quickly as well as constantly absorb the sun’s photons. The general basis behind this theory is the creation of an “artificial plant” type fuel source.

Artificial photosynthesis is a renewable, carbon-neutral source of fuel, producing either hydrogen, or carbohydrates. This sets it apart from the other popular renewable energy sources — hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, and wind — which produce electricity directly, with no fuel intermediate.

As such, artificial photosynthesis may become a very important source of fuel for transportation. Unlike biomass energy, it does not require arable land, and so it need not compete with the food supply.

Since the light-independent phase of photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, artificial photosynthesis may provide an economical mechanism for carbon sequestration, reducing the pool of CO2 in the atmosphere, and thus mitigating its effect on global warming. Specifically, net reduction of CO2 will occur when artificial photosynthesis is used to produce carbon-based fuel which is stored indefinitely.

 

Waves Power

Waves Power is a new energy source (see Fig. 9).

Fig. 9 A waves farm

 

ENERGY FROM THE STARS

An original system to take energy can be tomorrow “Capturing energy concentrated near the source and forwarding directly to Earth in concentrated form”.

Should start some spatial projects, to capture a large amount of energy somewhere near the source (near the Sun), energy which can be sent then to the Earth in a concentrated form (LASER, MASER, IRASER, etc).

The enormous energy emanating from the sun is spreading in all directions of the universe, and dilute with the distance.

On Earth no longer reach than a small amount from the energy emanated by the sun.

We try here (on the Earth) to capture a drop from a very small amount of energy, who came from Sun. And we also complain that the yield is low, and technological costs are high.

In the figure 10 we can see how a large amount of energy is transmitted to long distances with low losses, naturally, because is emitted by a sun (a star) in concentrated form, with natural lasers.

Fig. 10 A strange star

This is exactly what should we do. This sun strange and extremely rare in Universe shows us what we need to do.

In the next figure (see fig. 11) one can see the exact position of our planet in our solar system.

Fig. 11 The position of the Earth in raport of the Sun

It can see as well how the sun's energy is diluted when the distance from sun grows.

The third halo surrounds the planets Mercury and Venus, and barely touching the Earth.

The fourth halo (the most pale from those which are visible with the naked eye) reach Jupiter.

Mercury is hot, and Saturn is cold.

Installations which must do capturing the solar energy could be installed over the Mercury. From the Mercury, the concentrated energy will be transmitted directly focused on the Moon.

On the Moon, the energy will be conserved and forwarded to Earth in doses non-hazardous (with lower concentrations), using multi-channels microwaves.
 

DISCUSSION

Energy development is the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms for supply, cost, impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable energy.

Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services.

This energy allows people who can afford the cost to live under otherwise unfavorable climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, as do the climate, convenience, levels of traffic congestion, pollution and availability of domestic energy sources.

All terrestrial energy sources except nuclear, geothermal and tidal are from current solar insolation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively.

Ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion.

Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the Earth's core is the result of the decay of radioactive materials present beneath the Earth's crust, and nuclear fission relies on man-made fission of heavy radioactive elements in the Earth's crust; in both cases these elements were produced in supernova explosions before the formation of the solar system.

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished).

In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity.

New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuel) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly.

The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States.

At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel.

Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA, the world's largest producer in absolute terms, although not as a percentage of its total motor fuel use.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas.

More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cook stoves are used by 160 million households.

Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization.

 

CONCLUSIONS

After 1950, began to appear nuclear fission plants. The fission energy was a necessary evil. In this mode it stretched the oil life, avoiding an energy crisis. Even so, the energy obtained from oil represents about 66% of all energy used. At this rate of use of oil, it will be consumed in about 40 years. Today, the production of energy obtained by nuclear fusion is not yet perfect prepared. But time passes quickly. We must rush to implement of the additional sources of energy already known, but also find new energy sources.

In these circumstances this paper comes to proposing possible new energy sources. One of these sources can be the “energy from stars”.

Installations which must do capturing the solar energy could be installed over the Mercury. From the Mercury, the concentrated energy will be transmitted directly focused on the Moon.

On the Moon, the energy will be conserved and forwarded to Earth in doses non-hazardous (with lower concentrations), using multi-channels microwaves.
 

REFERENCES

 




©2010 Florian Ion PETRESCU - Obtaining Energy by the Annihilation of an Electron with a Positron

Energy Planet
Renewable Energy ResourcesRenewable Energy TopsitesAll Green Sites
Vote for "clean, renewable, sustainable, green, cheap energy"! Vote for living!
BlogItalia - La directory italiana dei blogTop 100 BlogTop Blogs All Green SitesTop 100 Science Sites on Top100Add.com - Add your Site, Boost Your Traffic! Blogger Italiani 2.0Renewable Energy Topsites 
Obtaining Energy by the Annihilation of an Electron with a Positron
 

Particle Annihilation - A Source of Renewable Energy?

 

Particle Annihilation - A Source of Renewable Energy?

 

Particle Annihilation - A Source of Renewable Energy?

Florian Ion Petrescu, an engineering PhD and senior lecturer at the Bucharest Polytechnic University in Rumania, has written about a variety of subjects including physics, mechanical engineering, and the development of flight. His books are available through LuLu publishers at http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/petrescuflorian

Petrescu_lights.jpeg


One of those books, TURN ON THE LIGHTS! describes how the process of particle annihilation, the destructive interference between a particle and its anti-particle, could be used to obtain comparatively cheap and perfectly renewable energy.

Although using the energy of sub-atomic particles, the process would neither necessitate nor create radioactive particles. It would also be much cheaper and simpler to realize than atomic fusion and present-day atomic fission reactors.

Here is a summary, slightly edited, from a communication printed in the January/February 2012 issue of Infinite Energy Magazine.

 

Obtaining Energy by Annihilation of an Electron with a Positron

by Florian Ion Petrescu Bucharest, Romania

We can obtain renewable, clean, safe, cheap energy by annihilation, for example, of an electron with an anti-electron (positron). An electron and positron are obtained by extracting them from atoms; the extraction consumes a negligible amount of energy. Then, the two particles are brought near one another (collision).

The phenomenon of annihilation occurs when particle rest mass is converted totally into energy (gamma photons). Gamma photons occur as much as needed to retrieve the total energy of the electron and positron (rest energy and kinetic energy); usually one can get two or three gamma particles when we have a low energy annihilation, i.e. two anti-particles with lower energy, each with a little beyond rest mass (the particles are accelerated at a low-speed motion), but we can get more particles when we have a high energy annihilation (i.e. when the particle energy is high and the particles were strongly accelerated before the collision).

The rest energy of an electron-positron pair slightly exceeds 1 MeV which is an extremely large amount of energy from a small particle, comparable with that achieved by the merger of two much larger particles, having a rest mass about 2,000 times higher. Hence the first great advantage of the new method proposed: namely, that the most complex physical process that has so far been tried to obtain particle energy (hot or cold fusion) draws only about a thousandth part of the rest mass of the particle, resulting in the fusion of two particles. Practically, only the energy gap between two particles is freed when their energy is united. The proposed method would be able to extract virtually all the internal energy of the particles that are annihilated.

We started with the electron positron pair because these small particles are more easily extracted from the atoms. The atoms are then immediately regenerated naturally, which makes energy from the annihilation of particles perfectly renewable. A future step will be to test the annihilation between a proton and an anti-proton, because their mass is about 1,800 times higher than that of the electron and positron, resulting in their annihilation energy being about 1,000 times higher. Instead of 1 MeV, 1 GeV is considered as the really obtainable energy, the energy donated by the proton of the hydrogen ion. The energy of an antiproton is considered to be donated by us almost entirely, for now, because to obtain an anti-proton we must accelerate some particles at very high-energy and then collide them. So the real comparison must be made between the deuteron fusion and annihilation processes of a hydrogen ion (proton) with an anti-proton. It will be a difference of energy of about 1,000 times higher per pair of particles used, in favor of the annihilation process.

Practically this realizes the dream of extracting all of the energy from matter.

Another great advantage of this method is that there are no radioactive substances nor radioactive wastes from the process. The process produces only gamma photons (i.e. energy) and possibly other energetic mini particles. The process does not pose any threat to humans and the environment. The energy produced is clean.

 
Synchrotron02.jpg

Modern industrial-scale synchrotrons can be quite large (here Soleil, near Paris, soon after construction)


The technology required, however, is much simpler than that for nuclear fission or fusion, it is also cheaper and easier to maintain. A great amount of energy is released by the annihilation process (virtually unlimited), and it will be cheap, clean, safe, as well as immediately renewable (sustainable), while using technology that is currently available.

We can extract the energy of the rest mass of an electron. For a pair of an electron and a positron, this energy is about 1 MeV. "Synchrotron radiation" as produced in a synchrotron light source is a deliberately produced source of radiation. Electrons are accelerated to high speeds in several stages to achieve a final energy (typically in the GeV range).

We need two synchrotrons, a synchrotron for electrons and another that accelerates positrons. The particles must be collided, after they are accelerated to an optimal energy level. All the energy is collected at the exit of the synchrotrons, after the collision of the opposite particles. We will recover the accelerating energy, and in addition we also collect the rest energy of the electrons and positrons.

At a rate of 1019 electrons/s we obtain an energy of about 7 GWh/year, even if only half of the possible collisions are produced. This high rate can be obtained with 60 pulses per minute and 1019 electrons per pulse, or with 600 pulses per minute and 1018 electrons per pulse. If we increase the flow rate 1,000 times, we can have a power of about 7 TWh/year. This type of energy can be a complement to fusion energy, and together they must replace the energy obtained by burning hydrocarbons.

Advantages of the annihilation of an electron with a positron, compared with nuclear fission reactors, are the absence of radioactive waste, and a much lessened risk (no explosion or chain reaction). Energy from the rest mass of the electron is more easily controlled compared with the fusion reaction, cold or hot.

There will be no need for enriched radioactive fuel (as in nuclear fission), for deuterium, lithium and accelerated neutrons (like in cold fusion), or of extremely high temperatures and pressures (as in hot fusion).

 



The pumped storage provides a load at times of high electricity output and low electricity demand, enabling additional system peak capacity.

Hydropower And Pumped Storage

Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu And Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu | Bucharest Polytechnic University

 

 

Hydropower or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, sawmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, and ore mills. A trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance. Pumped-storage method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system.


INTRODUCTION

Hydropower or water power (from the Greek: ύδρω, "water" ) is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, sawmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, and ore mills. A trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance [1-12].

In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. Cragside in Northumberland was the first house powered by hydroelectricity in 1878 and the first commercial hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower [3].

Since the early 20th century, the term has been used almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power. International institutions such as the World Bank view hydropower as a means for economic development without adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, but in some cases dams cause significant social or environmental issues.

 

HISTORY

In India, water wheels and watermills were built; in Imperial Rome, water powered mills produced flour from grain, and were also used for sawing timber and stone; in China, watermills were widely used since the Han dynasty In China and the rest of the Far East, hydraulically operated "pot wheel" pumps raised water into crop or irrigation canals [3].

The power of a wave of water released from a tank was used for extraction of metal ores in a method known as hushing. The method was first used at the Dolaucothi Gold Mines in Wales from 75 AD onwards, but had been developed in Spain at such mines as Las Médulas. Hushing was also widely used in Britain in the Medieval and later periods to extract lead and tin ores. It later evolved into hydraulic mining when used during the California Gold Rush.

The Three Gorges Dam in China; the hydroelectric dam is the world's largest power station by installed capacity

 

In the Middle Ages, Islamic mechanical engineer Al-Jazari invented designs for 100 hydraulic devices in his book, The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, including water wheel designs that rival designs of even the 21st century. He took a particular interest in pumping water to other regions, and because of this he created several "scooping" designs that were designed to employ buckets, cranks, and cogs to lift water up from rivers [3].

In 1753, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electric generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well.

Fig. 2 Saint Anthony Falls, United States

 

At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, water was the main source of power for new inventions such as Richard Arkwright's water frame. Although the use of water power gave way to steam power in many of the larger mills and factories, it was still used during the 18th and 19th centuries for many smaller operations, such as driving the bellows in small blast furnaces and gristmills, such as those built at Saint Anthony Falls, which uses the 50-foot (15 m) drop in the Mississippi River.

In the 1830s, at the early peak in U.S. canal-building, hydropower provided the energy to transport barge traffic up and down steep hills using inclined plane railroads. As railroads overtook canals for transportation, canal systems were modified and developed into hydropower systems; the history of Lowell, Massachusetts is a classic example of commercial development and industrialization, built upon the availability of water power.

 

 Fig. 3 Chief Joseph Dam near Bridgeport, Washington, U.S., is a major run-of-the-river station without a sizeable reservoir

 

Technological advances had moved the open water wheel into an enclosed turbine or water motor. In 1848 James B. Francis, while working as head engineer of Lowell's Locks and Canals company, improved on these designs to create a turbine with 90% efficiency. He applied scientific principles and testing methods to the problem of turbine design. His mathematical and graphical calculation methods allowed confident design of high efficiency turbines to exactly match a site's specific flow conditions. The Francis reaction turbine is still in wide use today. In the 1870s, deriving from uses in the California mining industry, Lester Allan Pelton developed the high efficiency Pelton wheel impulse turbine, which utilized hydropower from the high head streams characteristic of the mountainous California interior [3].

 

HYDROPOWER

Among sources of renewable energy, hydroelectric plants have the advantages of being long-lived (many existing plants have operated for more than 100 years). Also, hydroelectric plants are clean and have few emissions [4-11].

Fig. 4 Hydroelectric plants

 

GENERATING METHODS

Conventional (dams)

Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine [3].

Fig. 5 A conventional dammed-hydro facility (hydroelectric dam) is the most common type of hydroelectric power generation

 

Fig. 6 Turbine row at Los Nihuiles Power Station in Mendoza, Argentina

 

Run-of-the-river

Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that only the water coming from upstream is available for generation at that moment, and any oversupply must pass unused. A constant supply of water from a lake or existing reservoir upstream is a significant advantage in choosing sites for run-of-the-river. In the United States, run of the river hydropower could potentially provide 60,000 megawatts (80,000,000 hp) (about 13.7% of total use in 2011 if continuously available) [3].

 

Pumped-storage

This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system [3-4].

Fig. 7 Diagram of the TVA pumped storage facility at Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant

 

Pumped storage is the largest-capacity form of grid energy storage available, and, as of March 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports that PSH accounts for more than 99% of bulk storage capacity worldwide, representing around 127,000 MW. Typically, the round-trip energy efficiency of PSH varies in practice between 70% and 80%, with some claiming up to 87%. The main disadvantage of PHS is the specialist nature of the site required, needing both geographical height and water availability. Suitable sites are therefore likely to be in hilly or mountainous regions, and potentially in areas of outstanding natural beauty, and therefore there are also social and ecological issues to overcome [3-4].

 

Fig. 8 Pumped-storage hydroelectricity – the upper reservoir (Llyn Stwlan) and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped Storage Scheme in north Wales. The lower power station has four water turbines which generate 360 MW of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising

 

At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine, generating electricity. Reversible turbine/generator assemblies act as pump and turbine (usually a Francis turbine design). Nearly all facilities use the height difference between two natural bodies of water or artificial reservoirs. Pure pumped-storage plants just shift the water between reservoirs, while the "pump-back" approach is a combination of pumped storage and conventional hydroelectric plants that use natural stream-flow. Plants that do not use pumped-storage are referred to as conventional hydroelectric plants; conventional hydroelectric plants that have significant storage capacity may be able to play a similar role in the electrical grid as pumped storage, by deferring output until needed.

Taking into account evaporation losses from the exposed water surface and conversion losses, energy recovery of 80% or more can be regained. The technique is currently the most cost-effective means of storing large amounts of electrical energy on an operating basis, but capital costs and the presence of appropriate geography are critical decision factors.

The relatively low energy density of pumped storage systems requires either a very large body of water or a large variation in height. For example, 1000 kilograms of water (1 cubic meter) at the top of a 100 meter tower has a potential energy of about 0.272 kW·h (capable of raising the temperature of the same amount of water by only 0.23 Celsius = 0.42 Fahrenheit). The only way to store a significant amount of energy is by having a large body of water located on a hill relatively near, but as high as possible above, a second body of water. In some places this occurs naturally, in others one or both bodies of water have been man-made. Projects in which both reservoirs are artificial and in which no natural waterways are involved are commonly referred to as "closed loop".

This system may be economical because it flattens out load variations on the power grid, permitting thermal power stations such as coal-fired plants and nuclear power plants that provide base-load electricity to continue operating at peak efficiency (Base load power plants), while reducing the need for "peaking" power plants that use the same fuels as many baseload thermal plants, gas and oil, but have been designed for flexibility rather than maximal thermal efficiency. However, capital costs for purpose-built hydrostorage are relatively high.

Along with energy management, pumped storage systems help control electrical network frequency and provide reserve generation. Thermal plants are much less able to respond to sudden changes in electrical demand, potentially causing frequency and voltage instability. Pumped storage plants, like other hydroelectric plants, can respond to load changes within seconds.

The upper reservoir (Llyn Stwlan) and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped Storage Scheme in north Wales. The lower power station has four water turbines which generate 360 MW of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising.

The first use of pumped storage was in the 1890s in Italy and Switzerland. In the 1930s reversible hydroelectric turbines became available. These turbines could operate as both turbine-generators and in reverse as electric motor driven pumps. The latest in large-scale engineering technology are variable speed machines for greater efficiency. These machines generate in synchronization with the network frequency, but operate asynchronously (independent of the network frequency) as motor-pumps.

The first use of pumped-storage in the United States was in 1930 by the Connecticut Electric and Power Company, using a large reservoir located near New Milford, Connecticut, pumping water from the Housatonic River to the storage reservoir 230 feet above.

The important use for pumped storage is to level the fluctuating output of intermittent energy sources. The pumped storage provides a load at times of high electricity output and low electricity demand, enabling additional system peak capacity. In certain jurisdictions, electricity prices may be close to zero or occasionally negative (Ontario in early September, 2006), on occasions that there is more electrical generation than load available to absorb it; although at present this is rarely due to wind alone, increased wind generation may increase the likelihood of such occurrences. It is particularly likely that pumped storage will become especially important as a balance for very large scale photovoltaic generation [4].


 

REFERENCES

[1]-"Hydroelectric Power". Water Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Ge-Hy/Hydroelectric-Power.html

[2]-"Hydropower Sustainability". www.hydrosustainability.org. Retrieved from: http://www.hydrosustainability.org/

[3]-Hydropower, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydropower

[4]-Pumped-storage hydroelectricity, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumped-storage_hydroelectricity

[5]-PETRESCU, F.I., PETRESCU, R.V., (2010) The Energies of Today and Tomorrow In CONFERENG 2010, November 2010, Târgu-Jiu, in Annals of the “Constantin Brâncuşi” University, Engineering Series, Vol. 4, n. 3, 2010, p. 112-123, ISSN 1842-4856. Retrieved from:

http://www.utgjiu.ro/revista/ing/pdf/2010-03/13_%20FLORIAN_%20PETRESCU.pdf

[6]-PETRESCU, F.I., PETRESCU, R.V., (2011a) The Battle For Energy, In CONFERENG 2011, November 2011, Târgu-Jiu, in Annals of the Constantin Brâncuşi University of Târgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 3/2011, p. 176-186, ISSN 1842-4856, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.utgjiu.ro/revista/ing/pdf/2011-3/19_F_PETRESCU.pdf

[7]-PETRESCU F.I., (2011b) Our Energy! Paperback – November 12, 2011, 132 pages, Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, English version, ISBN-13: 978-1467937535; Retrieved from: http://www.amazon.com/Our-Energy-Dr-Florian-Petrescu/dp/1467937533/ref=sr_1_49?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1432305728&sr=1-49

[8]-PETRESCU F.I., PETRESCU R.V., (2011c) Perspective energetice globale (Romanian Edition) – December 26, 2011, 80 pages, Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, ISBN-10: 146813082X, ISBN-13: 978-1468130829; Retrieved from: http://www.amazon.com/Perspective-energetice-globale-Romanian-Petrescu/dp/146813082X

[9]-PETRESCU F.I., PETRESCU R.V., (2012) Green Energy, Paperback – November 5, 2012, Books On Demand, 118 pages, ISBN-13: 978-3848223633; Retrieved from:

http://www.amazon.com/Green-Energy-Florian-Tiberiu-Petrescu/dp/3848223635/ref=la_B006T2UHJM_1_25?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1432305411&sr=1-25

[10]-PETRESCU, F.I., PETRESCU, R.V., (2014) Nuclear Green Energy, In IRAQI JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN: (printed) 1813-2065, (online) 2309-1673, IJAP Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2014, p. 3-14, IF 3.416. Retrieved from: http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=88317

[11]-PETRESCU, F., New in Cold Nuclear Fusion, (2015a) Alternative Energy Magazine. Retrieved from:

http://www.altenergymag.com/content.php?post=21223

[12]-Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Energy From Stars, (2015b) Alternative Energy Magazine. Retrieved from:

http://www.altenergymag.com/content.php?post=21643

[13]-"Waterpower in Lowell". University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from:

http://library.uml.edu/clh/Malone/notes_01.pdf

 



 
    

 

©2010 Florian Ion PETRESCU - Obtaining Energy by the Annihilation of an Electron with a Positron

All Green Sites Renewable Energy TopsitesCatalog Firme,Director Web, Produse, Servicii si Anunturi Renewable Energy ResourcesAlternative Energy News Best Free Domains   Thispublication.com http://www.wikio.comFree advertising TechnologyBlogItalia - La directory italiana dei blog Top Blogs All Green SitesTop 100 Science Sites on Top100Add.com - Add your Site, Boost Your Traffic!blog directoryblog search directoryFind Blogs in the Blog DirectoryTop 100 BlogDirectorio webs de espanaDirectorio blogs Visit blogadda.com to discover Indian blogsEnvironment Blogshttp://www.wikio.comBlogRankers.com Technology blogsFind Blogs in the Blog DirectoryTop 100 BlogBlogItalia - La directory italiana dei blog Energy, New energy, Renewable energy, Clean energy, Cheap energy, Green energy, Sustainable energy, Blog DirectoryTechnology (Electronics) - TOP.ORG Blogs lists and reviewsBlog DirectoryAggregatore di blogBlog Directory & Search engineWeb Directory

Free Auto Backlinks

eXTReMe Tracker